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The purpose of the data paper was to introduce into scientific literature the results of scientific work carried out for the third edition of the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic'. The article reflects methodological approaches to the formation of a list of rare and in need of protection species and describes the corresponding datasets published in GBIF.
For determining the correct protection status of each species (and subspecies) listed in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Komi Republic (Taskaev 1998), they were assigned to one of the categories of rarity status (0-4) adopted in the 'Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature' (IUCN) (Lucas et al. 1978). In addition to these, the first edition of the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Taskaev 1998) introduced category 5. The criteria used for assigning the rarity status categories to plants, fungi and animals differed. The Book included plants and fungi that were quite common, but whose abundance might decrease due to anthropogenic impact and thus required biological supervision. For the kingdom Animalia, species that had been restored or were restoring their numbers were included in category 5. Hunting, fishing and collecting animals, plants and fungi belonging to the species listed in the regional Red Data Book were prohibited throughout the territory of the Republic, except in cases provided for by the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Komi Republic.
The second edition of the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Taskaev 2009) included 124 species of fungi (including lichens), 311 species of plants and 99 species of animals, a total of 534 taxa. The publication included 35 species listed in the 'Red Data Book of the Russian Federation' (Danilov-Danilyan 2001, Bardunov and Novikov 2008) whose categories also defined their protection at the federal level.
In the 10 years that have passed since the publication of the second edition of the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Taskaev 2009), specialists have received new information about the diversity of the flora, fauna, lichen biota and mycobiota of the region. New taxa and habitats of rare species have been identified. During all this time, scientists have conducted systematic inventories of members of the local fauna and flora complexes for the timely identification of species at high risk of loss.
Special attention was paid to the inventory of objects of the nature protected fund and on the territories of local populations of many species listed in the Red Data Books of both the Russian Federation and the Komi Republic. It has been confirmed that populations of many rare species are located within Nature Protected Areas (NPAs). A key role in the preservation of habitats and populations of rare species of plants, animals and fungi is played by NPAs of federal significance, such as the Pechora-Ilych Reserve and the Yugyd Va National Park (Degteva and Ponomarev 2014). These data, as well as information from literature sources and materials stored in herbariums and museum collections in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Perm and Syktyvkar, have been considered when compiling the updated lists of animals, plants and fungi included in the third edition of the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Degteva 2019). These lists include 532 taxa: 150 fungi (including lichens), 314 plants (including Nostoc pruniforme C. Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault, which actually belongs to the Bacteria Kingdom) and 68 animals. The categories of the rarity status of each species were assigned according to the system adopted in the 'Red Book of the Russian Federation' (Danilov-Danilyan 2001, Bardunov and Novikov 2008) and the second edition of the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Taskaev 2009).
Most of the taxa listed in the 'Red Data Book of the Russian Federation' (Danilov-Danilyan 2001, Bardunov and Novikov 2008) have been included in the third edition of the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Degteva 2019) with the same category of rarity status. The exceptions are Menegazzia terebrata and Hucho taimen, which are probably extinct in the region, Lobaria pulmonaria, Stereocaulon dactylophyllum and Cottus gobio, Circus macrourus, Cygnus bewickii and Gavia arctica arctica whose populations are quite numerous in the territory of the Komi Republic. Besides, this regional Red Data Book includes eight taxa whose populations need special attention due to the current conditions of their natural habitats and that are included in the Annex to the 'Red Data Book of the Russian Federation' (Danilov-Danilyan 2001, Bardunov and Novikov 2008). It is noteworthy that one species of vascular plants, two species of lichens and 42 animal species from the Komi lists are also included in the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species (IUCN 2021).
Before the publication of this paper, the 42 datasets with occurrences of rare species have been published in the GBIF: Adojaan et al. (2019), Auer et al. (2021), Beshkarev et al. (2019), Bobretsov (2019), Brianskaia et al. (2021), Community of Cris and Melechin (2019), De Vos and Creuwels (2021), Degteva et al. (2021b), Doubt (2021), Erokhin and Vorobiev (2019), Filippova et al. (2020), Hagemeyer and Blair (2017), European Nucleotide Archive (EMBL-EBI) (2019), Johannessen and Johnsen (2021), Karyakin et al. (2020), Kirillov and Kirillova (2019b), Kirillov and Kirillova (2019a), Kirillov and Kirillova (2020), Konakova (2020), Konakova and Kolesnikova (2021), Konakova et al. (2021), Kovtonyuk et al. (2021), Lahti (2017), Lomonosov Moscow State University (2018), MNHN (2021), Palamarchuk and Kirillov (2019), Pärtel (2021), Petrosyan (2019), Consortium (2016), Rebriev (2021), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (2021), Reshetnikova et al. (2020), Seregin (2021), Seregin and Stepanova (2021), Shashkov (2019), Soudzilovskaia et al. (2021), Ueda (2021), UiT The Arctic University of Norway (2021) (2021), Ukolov et al. (2019), Vaganov and Maratkanova (2021), Zheleznova et al. (2020a), Zheleznova et al. (2020b). The query result containing information on occurrences of rare species within the administrative boundary of the Komi Republic, published in GBIF, can be reached at -200613084148143.zip. This query result was obtained with the rgbif (Chamberlain and Boettiger 2017) package of R programming language (R Core Team 2021).
The data paper was created according to the concept described in works of Vishwas Chavanand and Lyubomir Penev (Chavan and Penev 2011, Penev et al. 2017) for description of two original datasets (Degteva et al. 2021a, Degteva et al. 2021b) concerning the third edition of Red Data Book of Komi Republic (Degteva 2019).
Populations of rare species were examined in the territories of the Yugyd va National Park, the Pechora-Ilych State Natural Biosphere Reserve and 13 NPAs of the Komi Republic. It was found that, in most of the NPAs, there are no threats to the existence of populations of rare species. Based on the analysis of available information and field research data (2016-2018), the authors compiled updated lists of 548 rare species of flora and fauna, proposed for inclusion in the new edition of the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic. Amongst them are 65 species of real mushrooms, 88 species of lichens, 10 species of algae (including Nostoc pruniforme), 71 species of bryophytes, 234 species of vascular plants, 43 species of invertebrates, six species of fish, one species of amphibians, 26 species of birds and four species of mammals. According to the research results of 2009-2018, it was proposed to exclude 75 taxa from the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic. Amongst them there are seven species of fungi, one lichen, one species of algae, 14 species of bryophytes, 19 species of vascular plants, 22 species of invertebrates, one species of amphibians, eight species of birds and one species of mammals. Most of them were included in Appendix 1 to the regional Red Data Book as taxa that need constant control of the number of populations in nature.
An inventory of information on the distribution, habitats, number and state of populations of rare species of plants, animals and fungi obtained for the period from 2009 to 2015 was carried out. The lists of species for which it is necessary to conduct additional research have been clarified. A survey of forestry and hunting experts and the population of the Komi Republic was carried out in order to identify the habitats of birds of prey and anseriformes and mammals included in the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Degteva 2019). The revision of the SYKO herbarium collections was carried out. Field studies were carried out, aimed at identifying key habitats, assessing the abundance of populations of plants, animals and fungi species listed in the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Taskaev 2009), for which data gaps were identified. Photographing of rare species and their habitats was carried out. The lists and categories of the rarity status of species proposed for inclusion in the third edition of the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic have been clarified. The updated maps of the distribution of rare species have been compiled. Supplements to the essays on rare species have been prepared for the new edition of the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic. Methods have been prepared for calculating the amount of harm caused to objects of the animal and plant world listed in the Red Data Book of the Komi Republic and their habitat and, finally, proposals have been made on the standards for the cost of rare species.
The dataset contains the occurrences of the species included in the 'Red Data Book of the Komi Republic' (Degteva 2019) and collected within the limits of the Komi Republic. The assessment of the species compliance with the criteria of natural rarity and population or range decline as a result of human impact was made, based on data available in the scientific literature and data stored in the collection funds of herbaria and museums, and on the results of scientific research on biological diversity. In addition, known populations of rare species in the territory of the Komi Republic were monitored between 2009 and 2018 and information was received from local people when performing the surveys and through media materials. When classifying the rarity of a species, we used the criteria and categories of status adopted in the 'Red Data Book of the Russian Federation' (Bardunov and Novikov 2008, Danilov-Danilyan 2001). 2b1af7f3a8